sherman's hard war strategy

William T. Sherman, a major-general for the United States Army during the Civil War, wrote the letter to General Henry Halleck, who was in Washington D.C. at the time. Sherman’s March to the Sea Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was a contradiction embodied. 200–202. ESSAY GUIDELINES -: Write a 1000-1500-word essay addressing each of the following points. What was General Sherman's "hard war," what was his "bold strategy" after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. On the other hand, when comparing Sherman's scorched earth campaigns to the actions of the British Army during the Second Boer War (1899–1902)—another war in which civilians were targeted because of their central role in sustaining an armed resistance—South African historian Hermann Giliomee declares that it "looks as if Sherman struck a better balance than the British commanders between severity and restraint in taking actions proportional to legitimate needs". explains how the essay will be organised (order of points). arguing that the Meridian campaign holds a greater significance in the development of Sherman’s ‘hard war’ strategy than has been previously admitted. William T. Sherman, a major-general for the United States Army during the Civil War, wrote the letter to General Henry Halleck, who was in Washington D.C. at the time. “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. Nine successive defensive positions were taken up by Johnston. . -- Civil War History "With Sherman's Mississippi Campaign , Foster has contributed significantly to the literature on the Civil War's western theater. [1] Another WWII-era student of Liddell Hart's writings about Sherman was George S. Patton, who "'spent a long vacation studying Sherman's campaigns on the ground in Georgia and the Carolinas, with the aid of [LH's] book,'" and later "'carried out his [bold] plans, in super-Sherman style.'"[2]. This appears to have been a consequence of the animosity among both Union soldiers and officers to the state that they regarded as the "cockpit of secession". Liddell Hart, foreword to the Indiana University Press's edition of Sherman's. 712–714, 727–729. [11] Former U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara refers equivocally to the statement that "war is cruelty and you cannot refine it" in both the book Wilson's Ghost[12] and in his interview for the film The Fog of War. For instance, Alabama-born Major Henry Hitchcock, who served in Sherman's staff, declared that "it is a terrible thing to consume and destroy the sustenance of thousands of people", but if the scorched earth strategy served "to paralyze their husbands and fathers who are fighting ... it is mercy in the end."[5]. Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. The results were his March to the sea which ultimately broke the confederates. . Grimsley cited a letter from Sherman to Grant… Mark Grimsley described Sherman’s Savannah campaign in The Hard Hand of War. . . Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earthtactics to break the backbone of the rebellion, which he called "hard war". This page was last modified on 18 March 2009, at 20:55. Step-by-step answer General Sherman’s Unorthodox Tactics that Ended the Civil War Scorched farms, slaughtered livestock, uprooted railway lines and cities set on fire was not typical battle strategy previously seen on American soil. Sherman himself downplayed his role in conducting total war, often saying that he was simply carrying out orders as best he could in order to fulfill his part of Grant's master plan for ending the war. The influential 20th-century British military historian and theorist B. H. Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. Replacing Grant as the overall commander in the West in March 1864, Sherman vigorously implemented the Union’s then-prevailing “hard war” military strategy, in the process making his name infamous to generations of Southerners. He engages notable Civil War historians . As Sheridan left Virginia's Shenandoah Valley ablaze, Union general William T. Sherman implemented hard-war policies in the Deep South with his "March to the Sea." Sherman's March to the Sea refers to a long stretch of devastating Union army movements that took place during the United States Civil War.In the fall of 1864, the Union General William Tecumseh ("Cump") Sherman took 60,000 men … (A) Sherman's hard war strategy was to conduct the Norths campaign as a war of conquest and employ a scorched earth tactic to break the rebellion. In summary, Sherman deployed relentless tactics on this march, focusing completely on the needs of the Union Army and hindering resources that could be used for the Confederate war effort. What was General Sherman’s “hard war,” what was his “bold strategy” after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? . Grimsley cited a letter from Sherman to Grant… What was General Sherman’s “hard war,” what was his “bold strategy” after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? Sherman’s Total War tactic was his way of ending a war faster than normal. The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. The letter came towards the tail end of Sherman’s campaign in Georgia and his capture of Savannah, a “Christmas gift” for President Lincoln. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. The expedition demonstrated to Sherman and other Federal commanders how to conduct “hard war” successfully. Confederate soldiers were answering the pleas from their womenfolk and deserting in droves to head back to the homestead...and then the War came to an end just a couple of months later. The influential 20th century British military historian and theorist Basil Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. Called total war, it … The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. The results were his March to the sea which ultimately broke the confederates. Sherman’s army burned much of Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. Sherman's concept of total war was a continuation of the tradition of the "nation at arms" established by the French Revolution. His siblings all enjoyed professional success. Although looting was officially forbidden, historians disagree on how well this regulation was enforced. But the hard-war strategy left a legacy of bitterness that lasted for generations. (4%) Format includes title page, body of paper, & reference page, with pages numbered, No need to gamble yet we've got you covered. Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. When the city council appealed to him to rescind that order, on the grounds that it would cause great hardship to women, children, the elderly, and others who bore no responsibility for the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a response in which he sought to articulate his conviction that a lasting peace would be possible only if the Union were restored, and that he was therefore prepared to do all he could do to quash the rebellion: Literary critic Edmund Wilson found in Sherman's Memoirs a fascinating and disturbing account of an "appetite for warfare" that "grows as it feeds on the South". [13] The admiration of scholars such as Victor Davis Hanson, Basil Liddell Hart, Lloyd Lewis, and John F. Marszalek for General Sherman owes much to what they see as an approach to the exigencies of modern armed conflict that was both effective and principled. In his campaign through Georgia he implemented his total war strategy, which included speedily advancing through Georgia to the Atlantic at any cost, something he called hard war. Sherman himself stated that "[i]f I had made up my mind to burn Columbia I would have burnt it with no more feeling than I would a common prairie dog village; but I did not do it . arguing that the Meridian campaign holds a greater significance in the development of Sherman's 'hard war' strategy than has been previously admitted. President Lincoln and Generals Sherman and Grant embraced a “hard war-soft peace” philosophy by the end of the war, with General Sherman being its principal proponent; given that General Sherman was a war criminal, it makes sense that he supported such brutal policy. Engraving depicting brutality of Union troops along the path to Savannah. Let's use Sherman's March to the Sea as a template to understand the reasoning. Union General William T. Sherman led 60,000 soldiers on an approximately 300 mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, Sherman ordered the city's evacuation. His vision of hard war brought the Confederacy to its knees, … To them, Sherman's devastating march through the South opened the way to the kind of warfare that culminated in World War II. General Sherman's record as a tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of logistics and on his brilliance as a strategist. The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. Its importance rested more in its impact on Sherman’s evolving policy toward Southern civilians and the Union strategy to win the war than on immediate military ramifications in Mississippi. After serving during the Mexican War of 1846–1848, he resigned his commission in 1853. Write a 1000-1500-word essay addressing each of the following points. William Tecumseh Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio, to Charles Robert Sherman, a successful lawyer. He became acquainted with the people and geography of the South when the U.S. Army stationed him in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina between 1840 and 1846. President Lincoln and Generals Sherman and Grant embraced a “hard war-soft peace” philosophy by the end of the war, with General Sherman being its principal proponent; given that General Sherman was a war criminal, it makes sense that he supported such brutal policy. Sherman’s Tactics: Strategy and Total War Destruction of a Railroad by the Union Army in Georgia (1864). Sherman’s tactics along with those used by Union cavalry commander Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley are seen as the first use of modern total warfare. (C) Sherman moved deep into enemy territory without supply lines, but he stood with confidence. A body containing several paragraphs, each of which will: (10%) Resources used as rationale for approaches and as sources of content, _____ 5. 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